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Standardized technologies, like wifi and USB, are heavily patented. If you want to use those technologies in your product, licenses have to be obtained. Quite often, owners of the patents declare that these licenses will be given on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms or FRAND. But are such declarations really hard, legal commitments? In this publication, Frodo Ferro, Dutch and European Patent and Trademark Attorney in our office in Amsterdam, investigated this question.

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